Sunday, January 11, 2009

Standards Based vs. Standardized (SOA & the Tarpit of Irrelevancy)

This is the second in a series of blog posts where I discuss what I see wrong with SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) in the way that it's being sold by vendors. The first installment is here.

Back in the very early days of Java web development, interacting with the tools sucked. Every servlet engine vendor had their own deployment scenario, and they varied wildly between vendors. I worked on several projects where we moved a web application from one dysfunctional servlet engine to another (this was in the early days, and they all sucked in one way or another). Then, the J2EE standard came along, including the WAR file format. Suddenly, you had a fighting chance (well, after a few iterations of the standard) of deploying to multiple application servers (notice how "servlet engine" became "application server"). And the vendors hated that.

They hated it because the J2EE standard turned their application servers into commodities. And the price of commodity software quickly approaches zero. That's why the application server vendors immediately started building more elaborate stuff on top of J2EE: portlet engines, content management, elaborate load balancers, etc. They knew that something like JBoss would come along and support the J2EE standard, making it impossible to charge $17,000 per CPU to deploy their application server (this number sticks out because one of my clients in the early 2000's paid WebLogic exactly that...for 8 CPUs). The J2EE standard essentially ran the server vendors out of the business of supplying just an application server.

Contrast that with database vendors. They are still able to charge big bucks for their servers, and keep companies (sorry, Enterprises) on the upgrade treadmill. An ANSI standard for SQL exists but (and this is the key part) it is so weak that it's useless. When last I checked, the ANSI standard for SQL didn't even include indexes, and no one would reasonably deploy a database server without indexing. The database vendors dodged the commoditization bullet by ensuring that the SQL standard would remain toothless in perpetuity.

Now, let's apply this to Enterprise Service Buses. One of the bits of marketing mantra touted by all the vendors of these Rube Goldberg machines is "standards". And they're selling these things into Java shops accustomed to the J2EE standard, so companies equate "standards" to "works the same across all players". All these shops are thinking of standards under the J2EE light, not the database server light. But here's the rub:

ESBs are standards-based but not standardized.

This distinction is important. All the extant ESBs use standards in every nook and cranny, but it's all held together by highly proprietary glue. The glue shows up in the administration tools, the way their BPEL designer works (along with their custom BPEL meta-data), how you configure the thing, how you handle routing, etc. The list goes on and on. These vendors will never allow the kind of standardization imposed by Sun in J2EE. The last thing the vendors want is to see their (crazy money making) babies turned into commodity software again. They'll make noise about creating a true standard, but it won't happen. They want to be more like the database vendors, not the application server vendors.

Even the open source offerings in the ESB space suffer a little from this because they are giving the bits away and selling consulting and training. This is a good business model (look what it's done for JBoss), but they have the same motivation to keep you locked into their version of proprietary glue.

Having proprietary glue is not necessarily a bad thing. It's one of the factors you have to consider anytime you are thinking about turning part of your infrastructure over to a externally developed piece of software. Obviously, no one is going to build their own database server -- it makes good sense to buy an existing one, and fight the nasty battle if and when it comes time to move to another one. BUT, you need to understand the distinction between standards-based and standardized so that you don't buy yourself into a real long term nightmare.

1 comment:

Bernd Eckenfels said...

I agree with the idea of the article, but I disagree with the degree of standardization in the area of WAR or EAR files.

Innovation and differentiation of the vendors results in vendor specific extensions (to Deployment Descriptors as well as SQL).

Only with EJB3 you can actually get some portability.